Home IM1


Parthian Prosperity and Eastern Challenges


Parthian Rule in Seleucia

Seleucia, the key commercial center of Iraq, thrived even more under the Parthians than it did under the Seleucids. In the first century A.D., its population reached an impressive 600,000 inhabitants. The Parthians, favoring rural life, left their Greek citizens undisturbed. Interestingly, the Greeks continued to mint coins dating back to Seleucus I’s reign (312 B.C.). Beyond Seleucia, the Parthians established a military camp across the Tigris, laying the foundation for the future city of Ctesiphon Maccabean Struggles and Parthian Rise.

Eastern Frontier Challenges

Mithradates, in his final three years, grappled with issues on the eastern frontier. The Huns, defeating and displacing the Tocharians (Yuezhi), triggered a chain reaction affecting the Parthians. Tocharians moved westward into Central Asia, displacing the Scythians, who subsequently raided Parthian and Bactrian

Maccabean Struggles and Parthian Rise


Jonathan’s Leadership and Tragedy

Both Alexander I and Demetrius II sought allies, leading to favorable peace terms with the Maccabees. Jonathan became the civil and military governor of Judaea. Unfortunately, another contender for the Seleucid throne, Trypho, murdered Jonathan in 142 B.C Parthian Expansion and Seleucid Decline.

Simon Takes Charge

Mattathias’s last living son, Simon, continued Jonathan’s work. In exchange for Jewish support against Trypho’s rebellion, Demetrius II granted full independence, renouncing tribute claims. Simon became the hereditary high priest and king. However, his reign ended tragically; after defeating Antiochus VII, Simon was assassinated by his son-in-law Ptolemy, who aspired to the throne. Ptolemy was defeated by Simon’s son, John Hyrcanus I, who became the next king, leading Israel in new directions.

Parthia’s Philhellenic

Parthian Expansion and Seleucid Decline


Seleucus II’s Eastern Campaign

Initially, the Seleucids were preoccupied with challenges in the west. Around 232 or 231 B.C., Seleucus II ventured eastward to quell a rebellion led by Tiridates. Sensing the superior strength of Seleucus, Tiridates strategically retreated to the steppe, prompting Seleucus to pursue him to the Jaxartes (Syr Dar’ya) River. However, alarming news from Syria compelled Seleucus to turn back, allowing Tiridates to re-occupy the abandoned district and annex Hyrcania along the Caspian Sea Parthian Prosperity and Eastern Challenges.

Challenges Faced by Artabanus I

Artabanus I (211-191) faced significant challenges during the reign of Antiochus the Great. Defeated in battle, Artabanus lost half his kingdom to the Greeks and acknowledged Seleucid overlordship to retain his throne. The succeeding king, Priapathius (191-176), seized the opportunity to recover Hyrcania

Istanbul Private Tours Mevlevi

Enigmatic Istanbul is an endless story. It’s the story of Istanbul’s many names, the story of settling the city, ‘Opposite the blind’. Although these two stories might be enough for some, for others they...

Guided Istanbul Tour Dervishes

Contact us and become part of the experience called Istanbul. Especially guided Istanbul tour dervishes experience. This is the place which likes to introduce Mevlana, its poetry, wisdom and dervishes to you and ‘feed’ your...

Private Istanbul Tours

A lot has been said and written about Istanbul. Still, the city is an endless source of information. It’s definitely worth trying getting to know Istanbul better and better. Private Istanbul tours, as well...

Istanbul Walking Tour

Istanbul walking tour‘Out beyond ideasof wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field.I’ll meet you there.’Jelaluddin Rumi, 13th centuryByzantium, Constantinople, Stamboul are all different names of the giant that everyone today knows as Istanbul. Many things...

Private Istanbul Tour

Private Istanbul tour around IstanbulWe made IstanbulDay for the individual tourists who like to have private Istanbul tour. The private tours, especially designed for you, give the chance to tourists to see Istanbul with...

Do we need guide Ensar

Ensar guide – Istanbul is not an ordinary place. It’s a cosmopolitan city that dates centuries back. It survived different rullers, empires. Istanbul hosted many people with all their stories, thoughts, desires…It is a city...

Tour guide Ensar

Tour guide EnsarI was born in Turkey and live in Turkey, Istanbul. I have been a professional tour guide for 25 years. Although I am a licensed guide for whole Turkey. As Tour guide...

Bosphorus Tours


Zheravna Festival