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An Ancient Land of Craftsmen and Culture

Ancient Phrygia, located in the western part of the Anatolian plateau, held a rich history shaped by skilled craftsmen and a unique culture. This land, marked by the Sakarya River, is now encompassed by the modern cities of Afyon, Eskisehir, and Ankara. Let’s explore the remnants of this historical realm.

Geography and Modern Cities

Phrygia’s historical boundaries stretched across the Anatolian plateau, positioned strategically between Afyon, Eskisehir, and Ankara. Today, only three major cities Anatolian Milestones, Afyon, known for opium, Eskisehir, an industrial hub and key railway junction, and Kütahya, famed for ceramics and brown coal mining, carry the echoes of Phrygia’s past.

Historical Significance

In antiquity, Phrygia thrived with numerous towns and cities, becoming a focal point on the eastward routes from Lydia and Caria. Despite its

Anatolian Milestones


A Tapestry of History

Anatolia, the cradle of civilizations, bears witness to a rich tapestry of historical events and cultural contributions. This compilation highlights key moments, inventions, and influences that have shaped Anatolia over the ages.

Paleolithic Wonders

Paleolithic Caves (700,000–35,000 BC): Testaments to ancient human habitation in Anatolia.
Early Settlements

Nevali Cori (11,000 BC): The world’s earliest-known village settlement.

Catalhoyuk (8,000 BC): Anatolia’s first urban city settlement.

Myths and Legends

Noah’s Ark: The legendary landing on Mt. Ararat in northeastern Turkey.

Santa Claus (St. Nicholas): Born in Patara, southwestern Turkey.

Trojan War: Epic battles in Troy, northwestern Turkey, immortalized by Homer.

Influential Figures

Homeros (Homer): Birthplace in Smyrna (Izmir), modern Turkey.

Herodotos (Herodotus): Father of history, born i

Lydian Language


A Blend of Anatolian Heritage

The Lydian language, belonging to the New Anatolian languages, unfolds a linguistic tale shaped by the aftermath of the Hittite Empire’s fall and the subsequent Indo-European settlement in Asia Minor.

Anatolian Melting Pot

As the Hittite Empire crumbled, Anatolian city-states witnessed the emergence of a new era marked by both Indo-European Hittites and non-Indo-European tribes like Hatti, Assyrians, and Aramaeans. By the 7th century B.C., Semitic and other tribes had assimilated most East and Central Anatolian Indo-Europeans, compelling Hittites and Luwians to migrate westward, finding refuge along the Aegean Sea shores Phrygia.

Distinctive Lydian Linguistics

Lydian, directly descended from Hittite, introduces unique linguistic features. The phonetics become more intricate with the introduction of nasal vowels [a] and [e], while the consonant system adopts palatals [s], [t], [d], [l

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